Palm readers and Hand Analysts have observed over the years some common traits in people with Simian Lines on one or both hands. [This pertains to those people who have no apparent medical problems.] People with Simian Lines generally live their life differently than most other people who do not have Simian Lines. Not necessarily living better nor worse. Just living more intensely with an undercurrent of uneasiness. It is interesting that a number of well known people with a Simian Line have made a positive contribution to history. They include British Prime Minister Tony Blair (both hands), former Russian President Nikita Kruchev, writers John Steinbeck and Henry Miller, to name some well documented cases.
As the simian line is a combination of the head and heart lines, it is the frequent assumption of chierologists, dermatoglyphics experts, and palmists that the simian line performs the functions associated with both lines. That is, the bearer finds it difficult to separate emotions and what is desired (the heart line) from intellect and what is thought (the head line). They believe the simian line gives the ability to focus on one thing, absolutely, to the exclusion of all else. It is believed that these people generally achieve and accomplish far more than most, developing techniques and inventions that will last for generations. They also supposedly experience far more misfortune than most, usually due to the same intensity that drives them. The ambition for success in business endeavors will be strong, as will be the tendency to shut out all else in pursuit of these ambitions. People with simian lines are seen as being complex, forceful, goal-oriented, and egocentric.
Why the single palmar crease was named 'the Simian Line'?
The single palmar transverse crease was named as the simian line / simian crease because of the fact that the hands of 'simians' (a synonym for: 'monkeys' and 'apes') are usually characterised by the presence of various horizontal creases which transverse the full simian hand.
So, the word 'simian line' stems merely from its resemblance to the palmar creases which are supposed to be found in the hands of primates.
Brief history of the Simian Line!
Since the work of Paul Brocca (1877) the simian line has been used by antropologists for studying variations among ethnic populations. In time researchers have found that the occurence of the simian line may vary from about 1% to 2% in various European population (including the Swiss, Dutch) to above 10% in various Asian populations.
The medical significance of the simian line as a diagnostic marker started in 1906 with a report by R.L. Down, who described the relationship between the simian crease and Down's syndrome (trisomy 21). And in the late 30's H. Cummins described that the hand in Down syndrome is not only frequently featured with a simian line but also with a typical pattern of dermatoglyphics (a word introduced by Cummins in the 20's refering to the fingerprints and palmar patterns in the skin ridges). But it took many years before the signifance of those observations made by Down & Cummins were generally recognized in medical science, for until 1959 (when J. Lejeune discovered that the syndrome results from an extra chromosome: trisomy 21) Down's syndrome was not yet recognized as a unique disorder.
But research methods improved since then, and today medical experts are even able to recognize a simian line of an unborn child with Down syndrome from an echography (see picture on the right).
Studies have indicated that the simian line is observed in 28% to 86% of people with Down syndrome (according various sources), while the simian line is seen in only about 1% of the healthy people.
Finally, various studies have indicated that the simian line is usually more frequently observed in the left-hand (1.3%) - compared to the right hand (0.8%).
Medical problems & the Simian Line
The simian line became famous for it's significance in Down's syndrome, but in time hundreds of academic scientifc publications have linked simian lines with a 'rainbow' of syndromes, diseases and other medical problems.
WrongDiagnosis presents a list of 123 causes that appear to be linked with the simian line.
Quite a few syndromes have been linked with the simian line
Psychology & the Simian Line
Next to many classic medical problems that have been linked with the simian line, it appears also linked with quite a few topics of human psychology. These varying from severe psychological problems to less common observation that the simian line can also be recognized as a 'gift marker' (which could apply to the many famous people who have a simian line).
In multiple studies the simian line has been linked with various aspects of psychological- and/or psychiatric problems, such as (in alphabetic order): deliquent behavior, hyperactivity, neuroticism, and schizophrenia.
R.S. Bali devoted in his book ""Anthropology of Crease morphogenisis" (1994) a full chapter about the behavioural attributes of palm creases. Various studies have indicated that the simian crease (or a 'single radial base crease') is more often seen in the hands of criminals, juvenile deliquents, and even murderers.
In the same year a very interesting pioneering study was presented by Ramesh Chaube (in: "Application and Methodological Perspectives in Dermatoglyphics", 1971), which revealed that the 'single radial transverse crease' (which includes the 'complete' simian line + some of it's related variants) is much more often seen in the hands of various types of criminals (29.25% vs. 11.81% in controls).
A study by Robert J. Lerer who found: "... the incidence of simian and Sydney palmar creases was 2 to 3 times higher in the hyperactive children population than in the controls." This pattern was slightly stronger for the simian crease than the Sydney line, but was significant in boys as well as girls.
The author of this website (handresearch.com) presented a few years ago some findings which indicate that so-called 'simian-related heartlines' (see the 3 pictures below) appear to be linked with one of the Big Five personality dimensions: in a small sample (4 males, 11 females) of people with a 'simian-related heartline' a high percetage appeared to have HIGH score on the Big Five dimension NEUROTICISM (when males & females grouped together: the result is significant at p<0.005).
NOTICE: In the BIG FIVE model the personality trait NEUROTICISM is associated with the tendency to experience negative emotions, especially related to: anxiety, hostility, depression, self-consciousness, impulsiveness, and vulnerability to stress.
Especially the work of the Polish psychologist Charlotte Wolff should be mentioned in this perspective. Wolff's research results on the simian crease in schizophrenic patients has been confirmed in quite a few studies - but also quite a few other studies have not confirmed the significance of the simian line in schizophrenia.
Palmistry & the Simian Line
American hand analyst Ed Campbell describes in his book 'The Encyclopedia of Palmistry' a well researched introduction towards the most common interpretations that have been described in the palmistry literature regarding the simian line. Jenifer Boyer presents an online overview of how palm readers & hand analysts interpretate the simian line - see also: Jeff Overturf's tribute to the simian line.
According various authors of palmistry books, some common personality features of 'healthy people' that have been associated with the simian line are e.g.: 'individualistic and emotional irregular' (chinese palmist Hachiro Asano ), 'highly introspective' (Indian palmist V.A.K. Ayer ), 'emotional extremes' (UK palmists Sasha Fenton & Malcolm Wright ), 'intense powers of concentration' (Canadian palmist Roz Levin ), 'egocentricity' (Indian palm reader K.C. Sen ), 'gift marker' (US hand analyst Richard Unger ), and 'difficulty in getting along with others' (Malaysian palmist Yaschpaule ).
Ethnic popuations & the Simian Line
In the work 'Hands: The Complete Book of Palmistry' (1985), described Hachiro Asano from Japan statistics which demonstrate that the simian line is more common in Oriental (Asian) populations. The following percentages are presented as indicative for the occurence of (complete) simian lines in various ethnic populations:
• Pygmies: 34.7 %
• Gypsies: 14.3 %
• Chinese: 13.0 %
• Koreans: 11.2 %
• Kyushu Japanese: 9.2 %
• Arabs & Berbers: 7.9 %
• Jews: 4.6 %
• Eastern Japanese: 4.0 %
• Germans: 2.8 %
• Ainu (indigenous caucasian-like ethnic group of Japan): 2.2 %
• Dutch: 1.5 %
• Eskimos: 1.3 %
• Swiss: 1.2 %
Some of the percentages presented by Asano are also cited (including specific sources) in the work 'Anthropology of crease morphogenesis (1994) by R.S. Bali from India.
Bali also described some statistics on the sexe difference of the simian crease among various populations, which indicate that the presence of a 'complete' simian crease is usually more common seen in men compared to women (compiled from page 322):
• Germans: males (N=6,503) - 2.2 %, females (N=5,274) - 0.9 %
• Indias: males (N=630) - 0.95 %, females (N=630) - 1.43 %
• Basua : males (N=191) - 17.0 %, females (N=630) - 17.7 %
• Jews: males (N=108) - 4.6 %, females (N=92) - 0.0 %
But the most detailed study on the occurence of the simian crease in populations (only from Europe) was presented by the frenchman M. Th. de Lestrange (The transverse crease in Europe, 1969). De Lestrange published a review of 32 historically published studies (from 19 countries), and used 4 selection criteria (study of both sexes, sample size 1000+, no combination of samples, no specific populations) to select those studies who reveal probably the most reliable data. 24 Of the 32 studies were rejected, resulting in a selection 8 studies that met all four criteria. Six of those 8 studies included both men and women (including studies from France, Greece, The Netherlands, and 3 studies from Germany). The results of these studies for men and women were as follows:
• Germany: males (N=8,802) - 2.77 %, females (N=8,911) - 1.65 %
• Greece: males (N=2,587) - 3.67 %, females (N=1,054) - 2.37 %
• France: males (N=1,264) - 3.64 %, females (N=1,634) - 2.26 %
• Netherlands: males (N=1,000) - 2.90 %, females (N=1,500) - 1.60 %
Another very interesting simian line (simian sulcus) study by A. Tarca (2004) lists e.g. the following data for various European populations:
• Romania: males (N=2,535) - 3.59 %, females (N=2,659) - 1.99 %
• Moldavia: males (N=684) - 5.70 %, females (N=700) - 2.86 %
• Austria: males (N=316) - 4.11 %, females (N=270) - 1.85 %
• Spain: males (N=390) - 3.85 %, females (N=105) - 1.90 %
So in general, all large studies from Europe indicate that simian lines are observed almost twice as often in men compared to women. Asano's study includes also a likewise male-female ratio for the occurence of simian lines in Japan (based on the hands of 3,775 infants and their parents).
Famous person has the simian line
• Tony Blair
Former Prime Minister of the UK, politician
• Armin van Buuren
Trance DJ: world's most popular DJ (2007-2010)
• Robert DeNiro
• Hillary Clinton
US Secretary of State, politician
• Thom Yorke
British musician, leadsinger of alternative rockband 'Radiohead'
• Rainn Wilson
• ALbert Einstein
German physician [left hand: 'incomplete' Sydney line];
• Muhammad Ali
American Boxer worldchampion[right hand: 'single radial base crease'];
• Mahatma Ghandi [right hand: bridge between heartline & head line];
Indian spiritual leader
• Eddy Murphy
American actor [right hand: bridge between heartline & headline];
• Britney Spears
American popstar [left hand: approximate 'simian related
• Amy Winehouse
• Ferdinand Marcos
unik #asalusul #DOW